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After independence, central as well as state governments have taken up special programmes for the rehabilitation of primitive tribes having wandering economy in the form of food collection, hunting and shifting cultivation. Birhor is one of the primitive tribe groups living in the districts of Hazaribagh, Giridih, Ranchi, Lohardaga, Palamu, Garhwa, Dhanbad, and Singhbhum in Jharkhand State. The total populationof Birhor tribe recorded in the census of 1991 is only 5000 which are dwindling day by day. The dwindling population of Birhor tribe creates serious concern for Government as the community is facing threats of extinction. Birhors are way behind in almost all indicators of development including

education, poverty, nutrition, employment and health. Government is running number of programmes for primitive tribes but due to lack of awareness and understanding among Birhors and coordination between different departments, Birhors are unable to get optimum benefit of such programmes. Among the 32 tribes in Jharkhand, eight are under PGT (Primitive Tribe Groups) and they are – Asur, Birhor, Birajia, Korwa, Parahiya (Baiga), Sabar, Mal Pahariya and Souriya Pahariya, The total Tribal population constitutes 27 per cent of the Jharkhand population of 2.70 crore. The PTG population is just 2.23 lakh as per 2011 Census.
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